Kamianets-Podilskyi – one of the oldest historical cities of Ukraine, the main city of Podillya, the significant phenomenon in the European culture. An original geopolitical arrangement near historical borders, overland and water ways, basic of which Dniester, and also an arrangement of city on unapproachable rocky island was has defined its basic function – a frontier fortress. For centuries-old history Kamianets not time passed from hands in hands of different conquerors. In due time it Tatar-Mongols, Polish-Lithuanian shlyakhta, Turks, Austro-Hungarians, the Russian imperialists and bolsheviks, fascist invaders owned.
Accordingly, each historical period has imposed the print on topography and architecture of Old city. In Kamianets-Podilskyi more than 200 important architectural monuments. A special place among historical monuments of city is an old citadel-fortress with system of other architectural constructions. Integral part of a fortress is the stone bridge, as though continuing fortifications from east party and uniting Old city with a fortress. In 1998 the Old city is declared like National Historical Architectural reserve “Kamianets”.
Fortress (11-18 cent.) for long years of existence during numerous reorganizations has got a kind of the extended rectangular enclosed by high walls. On a contour 11 mighty towers have been at various times constructed. Wooden strengthening of different centuries have been replaced stone. In territory of a fortress there was a well with water, that during a fortress storm played very important role. During Middle Ages Kamenetskaya fortress was considered as a unapproachable stronghold. The legend according to which in 1621 turkish emperor the Osmanli turk amazed by power of walls and towers, has exclaimed is known: “Who has created this stone miracle?” “Allah”, – soldiers have answered. “So start up the Allah and takes it”, – the Osmanli turk has told and has ordered to recede. As an advanced post of the land Podillya the fortress has been last time used during II World war. It has been destroyed, it is now restored and is a museum of All-Ukrainain scale.
The Old Town is a part of the UNESCO list of world heritage. Since XI century was known as Kamianets, which was associated with the nature of ground rocky terrain. The Old Town is located on a peninsula surrounded by the canyon, at the bottom of which flows past the river Smotrich. The Old Town is the ancient historical and cultural complex, which consists of ancient architectural constructions reflecting the culture of people who lived there at different times. The Old Town is connected with the central part of the city by Novoplanovskiy bridge. Steep rocky banks of the river Smotrich attracted climbers to Kamianets-Podilskiy.
The bridge was built on 1872 and connecting canyons of Smotrych river and the leader to the New plan. Its height is 38 m, length – 136 m. From the bridge over a river Smotrych deep canyon offering spectacular views of the medieval towers and walls of Kamianets-Podilskyi, rocks above the ribbon of the river with natural waterfalls and a park with figures of deer on the hills.
Church over apostles Peter and Paul named “Small Wawel of Podillya” not only for the perfect architecture, but also owing to value of the Cathedral in a spiritual life of edge. The church is well-known Giovanni Sampini`s for frescoes, is masterful the made wooden altar of 18 cent., a Turkish minaret with a statue of Maiden Maria on it, stone Laura, unique body in 972 pipes.
Dominican church of St. Nicholas is located at the highest point of the Old City is considered one of the oldest temples of Kamianets-Podilskyi. Sung by poets as the “Pearl of the skirts,” the edge of a beautiful temple. For the first time a Dominican monastery is mentioned in the 1372. Can be seen on the facade of arms “Pilyava” Potocki family and sculpture, “The dog with a torch” (Dominicans called themselves the “dogs of the Lord”). Left to the church attached two-storied house in which he lived Potocki. There is an ongoing restoration at the temple.
The Town Hall is the former building of the city magistrate, an architectural monument of the Renaissance and Baroque styles of XIV – XIX centuries. Located in the heart of the old city. The stone building constructed on 30-40-ies of the sixteenth century. In 1754 it was rebuilt. It is adjacent to a rectangular tower where in 1756 two bells were installed and in 1884 – the mechanical clock running at the present time. Under the Town Hall are dungeons related to the Dominican and Franciscan churches.
The Tower is most powerful of Kamianets towers. After repair in 17 cent. began to refer to Kushnirskaya. The national name – the Wind Gate. On a legend here has broken a hat from Peter`s I head during its visiting Kamianets in 1711.
Trinitarian Church was founded in the XVIII century by the monks of the Order of Trinitarians, who specialized in ransom captives from Turkish captivity. The temple is built in Baroque style. Attracts the attention of the main facade, which gives harmony Tuscan order pilasters. The facade is finished pediment decorated with sculptures and vases. Church is fenced with stone wall. The gates are decorated with statues of Jean de Matha and Felix de Valois – the founders of the Trinitarian order of monks. Stairs leading to the gate, fenced parapet on which the statue of the Virgin Mary.
The ruins of the huge Armenian cathedral of St. Nicholas, even in the current state of impressive elegance fragments fence and preserved monumental bell tower. The temple is situated in the center of the block where the XIV century Armenians lived. The first wooden Armenian church was built in 1395 and it was rebuilt in stone in 1495. Constructed on 1555 the bell tower with battlements and four observation towers at the top of the tower is similar to the defense tower. After the Turkish occupation temple rebuilt only in 1767 already as a Catholic church. It was a majestic church of Byzantine architecture with an octagonal dome and covered galleries around the perimeter. In the 1930-ies the church was blown up. Now a small UAOC chapel is placed.
The majestic Cathedral of Alexander Nevsky is the main Orthodox church of Kamianets-Podilskyi. Cathedral in neo-Byzantine style was built in 1893 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the accession to the Russian skirts. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was destroyed during the Soviet era, but has recently been restored.